Dissecting the Genetic basis of Heterosis in Elite Super-hybrid Rice Source: Plant Physiology
Published:27 Feb.2023    Source:Plant Physiology
Y900 is one of the top hybrid rice (Oryza sativa) varieties, with its yield exceeding 15 t/hm2. To dissect the mechanism of heterosis, we sequenced the male parent line R900 and female parent line Y58S using long-read and Hi-C technology. High-quality reference genomes of 396.41 Mb and 398.24 Mb were obtained for R900 and Y58S, respectively. Genome-wide variations between the parents were systematically identified, including 1 367 758 SNPs, 299 149 Indels,and 4 757 SVs. The level of variation between Y58S and R900 was the lowest among the comparisons of Y58S with other rice genomes. More than 75% of genes exhibited variation between the two parents. Compared with other two-line hybrids sharing the same female parent, the portion of Geng/japonica (GJ)-type genetic components from different male parents increased with yield increasing in their corresponding hybrids.

Transcriptome analysis revealed that the partial dominance effect was the main genetic effect that constituted the heterosis of Y900. In the hybrid, both alleles from the two parents were expressed, and their expression patterns were dynamically regulated in different tissues. The cis-regulation was dominant for young panicle tissues, while trans-regulation was more common in leaf tissues. Overdominance was surprisingly prevalent in stems and more likely regulated by the trans-regulation mechanism. Additionally, R900 contained many excellent GJ haplotypes, such as NARROW LEAF1 (NAL1), Oryza sativa SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE13 (OsSPL13) and Grain number, plant height, and heading date8 (Ghd8), making it a good complement to Y58S. The fine-tuned mechanism of heterosis involves genome-wide variation, GJ introgression, key functional genes, and dynamic gene/allele expression and regulation pattern changes in different tissues and growth stages.